DSM 5 Schizophrenia: What You Need To Know About The Updated Definition

In this article, we will review the most recent changes to the former Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as DSM. DSM 5 is now known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Spectrum. Many of the same basic diagnoses in DSM 5 haven’t changed; however, some criteria related to the symptoms of Schizophrenia have changed in order to ensure a more accurate diagnosis.

So, what new changes to DSM 5 do you need to know? Read on to learn more about Schizophrenia, the most common symptoms of Schizophrenia and other common psychotic disorders, according to the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a personality disorder and mental illness that involves a range of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional symptoms. As a result, it can be difficult to accurately diagnose Schizophrenic patients. Unfortunately, there aren’t any specific or firm physical examinations, blood tests or other lab tests that can confirm the presence of Schizophrenia. A typical Schizophrenia diagnosis involves recognizing a number of symptoms that impact an individual’s ability to function in social and/ or occupational settings.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM 5), the Schizophrenia disorder can affect a person at any age or life stage. However, late-onset Schizophrenia is more common, typically emerging between teenage years and mid-thirties. Most adult men experience late-onset Schizophrenia in their mid twenties, and women in their late twenties. Although late-onset Schizophrenia is more common among young adults, childhood-onset Schizophrenia is also possible.

DSM 5 Schizophrenia Symptoms

According to DSM 5, here are the following signs and symptoms of the schizophreniform disorder:

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Interrupted or disorganized speech patterns
  • Catatonic behaviors
  • Severely disorganized
  • Diminished emotional expressions
  • Impaired functionality with self-care, work or personal or familial relationships

The symptoms of Schizophrenia can be organized and categorized into four domains: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms and mood symptoms.

  • Positive symptoms – Positive symptoms typically involve some psychotic symptoms, which can include delusions, hallucinations (typically auditory), and disorganized speech or inappropriate or odd behavior.
  • Negative symptoms – Common negative symptoms involve a decrease in emotional expressions. These also include a decrease or loss of interest in drive, motivation or other hobbies. An example of a negative symptom could be psychosis, which involves psychotic symptoms or a psychotic episode.For example, late paraphrenia falls under paranoid Schizophrenia or a delusional disorder. Patients with late paraphrenia are often old age, and may experience similar symptoms and signs of Alzheimer’s Disease, according to DSM-IV.
  • Cognitive symptoms – Neurocognitive disorders typically involve a reduction in working memory and attention, such as the ability to organize and remain organized. Most patients with major neurocognitive disorders or symptoms also find it difficult to understand the subtle cues involved in personal relationships.
  • Mood symptoms – Many patients with Schizophrenia or mood disorders are often depressed. On the other hand, they may also experience extreme happiness or sadness in ways that are difficult for a healthy patient to understand.

In addition to the presence of negative symptoms, these negative or psychotic symptoms must also be apparent for a long period of time (at least one month or longer, and up to six months). This period of time may also include some residual symptoms, however, negative symptoms may still be present.

Double-blind placebo-controlled studies and systematic review and meta-analysis have shown the results of various medications for the treatment of negative symptoms associated with Schizophrenia.

Furthermore, other mental health disorders must be ruled out before diagnosing a patient with Schizophrenia. These disorders include the following:

  • CID
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Paraphilic disorder
  • Delusional disorder
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Mood disorders
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder (OCD)
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Although some disturbances in emotional response and behaviors during active and residual phases of the disorder are common, disturbances cannot be caused by substance-related disorders (such as alcohol or substance abuse), or another disorder or mental health illness or condition.

For example, let’s say that a patient has a history of autism or childhood-onset Schizophrenia spectrum disorder, or another type of communication disorder. In this case, other delusions, hallucinations, as well as other symptoms must be present for at least one month in order for the disorder to be classified as Schizophrenia.

What is the DSM?

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the official handbook used by mental health professionals, such as physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists and counselors throughout the United States. These professionals refer to DSM to help guide them in diagnosing a variety of mental disorders, including Schizophrenia. DSM provides a wealth of descriptions, criteria, and symptoms of Schizophrenia. It also provides professionals and clinicians with a guide on the language to use to communicate with patients and families about certain mental disorders.

DSM also serves as a resource for researchers to study the criteria/ criterion for potential future revisions of the manual, and to also aid in the development of medications, treatments, and interventions.

DSM 5 Schizophrenia Changes

So, why is DSM revised on occasion? The First Edition of DSM was published in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and has been reviewed, updated, and revised since then. The Fourth Edition of DSM (DSM IV Schizophrenia) was published nearly 20 years ago. Since then, with modern advancements in technology, medicine, and research, the mental health field has gained new research and knowledge about a wide range of mental and psychotic disorders.

The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) has a number of changes related to Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The majority of these changes were made to better define the criteria/ criterion for diagnosis Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders based upon years of research.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, here are some of the most crucial changes:

  • Bizarre vs. Non-Bizarre Symptoms – The elimination of bizarre delusions and auditory hallucinations (such as hearing multiple voices conversing). According to DSM-IV criteria, the presence of only one symptom was required in order for a diagnosis rather than the presence of two other symptoms. This criteria was removed due to poor reliability in classifying bizarre versus non-bizarre delusions.DSM 5 outlines that two symptoms from Criterion A symptoms are required to diagnose Schizophrenia.
  • Positive Symptoms – Secondly, the next requirement change is related to the presence of positive symptoms. A patient must display at least one of three positive symptoms of Schizophrenia. These symptoms can include:
    • Hallucinations
    • Delusions
    • Disorganized speech
  • Schizophrenia Subtypes – Schizophrenia subtypes were removed from DSM-5 Schizophrenia due to low reliability, limited diagnostic stability, and poor validity, according to the American Psychiatric Association.Additionally, the American Psychiatric Association removed the Schizophrenia subtypes because they could not provide better, targeted treatments to schizophrenic patients.The American Psychiatric Association rather recommends that clinicians and mental health professionals take more of a “dimensional approach” to classifying the core symptoms of Schizophrenia. Section III in DSM-5 outlines some assessments that can be used as well as some diagnoses that require further research.

Finally, the American Psychiatric Association believes that these crucial changes in diagnostic requirements will increase the reliability of making a firm diagnosis of the Schizophrenia spectrum.

A Quality Diagnosis

Although Schizophrenia is a relatively uncommon psychotic disorder, unfortunately, 5 to 6 percent of patients with Schizophrenia commit suicide. Furthermore, approximately 20 percent are suicidal, and make suicide attempts on multiple occasions. An even greater number have suicidal thoughts or tendencies. These attempts are often in response to hallucinations and delusions.

Therefore, it is incredibly important for mental health professionals and clinicians to have access to the most up-to-date resources and requirements. These will allow them to accurately diagnosing Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and mood disorders in order to help patients seek the best treatments.

Sources

https://pro.psychcentral.com/dsm-5-changes-schizophrenia-psychotic-disorders/

https://www.psycom.net/schizophrenia-dsm-5-definition/

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/288259-overview

https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/the-new-dsm-5-schizophrenia-spectrum-and-other-psychotic-disorders/

https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm/feedback-and-questions/frequently-asked-questions

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/paraphrenia

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/raise/what-is-psychosis.shtml

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17503979

INFJ Careers: A Comprehensive Guide

Are you looking for INFJ careers to suit your personality type? When you are starting your career, understanding the strengths of your personality type is a good start. The same stands if you are thinking about changing career paths. One of the popular personality tests used by employers and careers advisors is the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI). This questionnaire looks at how you behave and how you prefer to make decisions and interact and communicate with others. The Myers-Briggs test identifies 16 personality types. Knowing your own type indicator can help with making career choices.

infj careers

Image Source: Pixabay.com

What is INFJ Personality

What does INFJ stand for? The letters in each of the 16 Myers-Briggs personality test types relate to the four types of behaviors and traits you score highest in. An INFJ personality is one that scores highly in Introversion, Intuition, Feeling, and Judging. This personality type is considered one of the rarest, with the smallest percentage of the US population identifying as INFJ. The gender balance is fairly equal, although there tend to be more INFJ women than INFJ men.

  • Introversion: As a personality trait, an INFJ person feels more energized when they are alone or with a few close people. They are not comfortable being the center of attention in a large group or crowd. They may outwardly seem quiet, reserved, and introverted, but they are often deep thinkers.
  • Intuition: The intuitive personality trait in an INFJ presents as being able to see and reflect on possibilities and look to the future. They have an understanding of the bigger picture. They see and feel how everything else fits within a system and where to adjust if needed using critical-thinking skills to reflect and evaluate.
  • Feeling: INFJ people value the social impact and implications of any decision. They will tend to go with and place a lot of value on personal or “gut” feelings when making decisions. They will usually always consider other people’s points of view.
  • Judging: INFJ people will take a structured, planned, and organized approach. They can be very decisive in their assessment and judgment of any situation.

INFJ Personality Traits

infj careers

Image Source: Pixabay.com

Some of the personality traits and strengths and weaknesses of MBTI INFJ personality types are:

Conscientious

INFJ people tend to be loyal and conscientious towards all that they do and work towards. This personality type likes do the right thing and will try to do the best for the benefit of all.

Insightful

INFJ people are usually very quiet, reflective, and intuitive. Their introverted intuition contributes to their ability to be very insightful into other people and situations. They have social perceptiveness, are empathetic listeners and able to understand complex situations.

Decisive

INFJ people will usually make a decision and stick with it. They are independent, trust their feelings and their judgment and ability to assess and evaluate a situation and other people. They can be perfectionists.

Value Driven

 INFJ personality types like to find meaning in everything they do, whether related to a single task or the bigger picture. They are driven by their values and principles. Have a purpose in life is usually important to them.

Nurturing

INFJ people care about humanity at large. They are motivated to help other people realize their dreams and their potential, or get back on track if they are having difficulties in life. They will share knowledge to help others get ahead.

Creative

INFJ people are usually creative in their approach to life in general. They will share and bring alternative and visionary solutions to problems. They are often creative in an artistic sense as well and enjoy art, music, fashion, writing, and so on.

Sensitive

INFJ personality types can be extremely sensitive. They care about what others think and feel. In turn, they will ponder on how they feel about others. They dislike conflict but are not likely to shy away from it if they think they can solve the problem. If someone or something offends them deeply or hurts their feelings, they will likely just walk away. They also usually prefer working in a quieter environment.

Relationships

INFJ people tend to let only a few people in close in their personal lives. They prefer quality over quantity, and would rather have a few closer meaningful connections and friendships than a wide network of casual acquaintances. INFJ relationships can be intense, but within a workplace, they tend to be share and be friendly and pleasant with colleagues. They will take a cooperative approach to mitigate the risk of any conflict.

INFJ Careers

INFJ personality types usually suit career paths where they can combine their caring and compassion towards humanity with their work. They need jobs where they can make decisions and take shared action to make the world a better place. They are well suited to work in most professions in the wider medical and health sector, including psychology, psychiatry, counselors, and social workers. Additionally, they also work well in educational jobs and settings, human resource positions, and in the religious professions. Within the arts, they may thrive in INFJ careers such as photography, writing, and music that can capture the essence or feeling of a people or region.

Because they have a curiosity to delve into meanings and explore possibilities, they can be well suited to pursuing an associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree, and master’s degree – whatever is required to enter their chosen job or work type.

INFJ Jobs & Career List

infj careers

Image Source: Pixabay.com

INFP people might consider different career choices, but often once they make a decision, that is what they stay with. They would rather stay working with what they know than risk losing everything they may have worked towards already. They have usually utmost faith in their feelings of what will suit them in terms of work. With their ability and drive to spend their lives in a meaningful way, jobs or INFJ careers they could work in include:

Health Professionals

Their strong sense of ethics and integrity and desire to help others fits well with working in any of the health professions in any capacity. They may work as medical doctors and nurses, in psychiatry or psychology, as counselors, or in social work or social service jobs across sectors.

Educationalists

Being reflective and insightful of others behavior makes the INFJ type great educationalists at all levels of the education system from nursery to tertiary education. Jobs as academics often appeal to this personality type.

Human Resources

Within a business environment or other workplace, they may suit a job working in a human resource department in all related roles from recruiting to advising, to administration. They also suit HR jobs involving coaching others and encouraging workplace learning and development.

Natural and Social Scientists

Their curiosity to seek the meaning of things is well suited to scientific roles, whether in a lab or out in the field with people. The quiet and introverted nature of INFJ people means they will think and work through a system and look for solutions for the future in any of these jobs.

Humanitarians

Dedicating their career to a cause can be a good fit for INFJ people. Work in organizations and non-profits that have a mission to make a positive impact on the environment or people will have their wholehearted contribution of all the skills they can share and bring to their job help make it happen.

Arts

INFJ people can excel working in creative careers such as photography, dance, music, and graphic design. A career path may be pursuing an artistic pursuit as a career or job, and then going on to be great teachers of those creative skills to share with others.

Writers

Writing usually comes naturally to INFJ people. They often find it an easy way to communicate their ideas, feelings, intuition, and insights into the world. With their ability and insight to see into many types of situations, they can often cross genres and write across different topics and work with different forms of media and communication within different jobs.

INFJ Careers to Avoid

We all bring many personality traits to different careers and occupations. Even so, there are some careers for INFJs that are usually best to avoid. It is best to steer clear any types of environment where the sole or main job motivation is money or profit. They are not likely to feel comfortable in straight sales jobs, accounting or finance, real estate, or purely practical hands-on type work unless they can see a bigger meaning behind what they are doing. They may also find it hard in noisy and stressful environments such as kitchens, factories, and emergency services.

Final Thoughts

For any MBTI personality type, finding a role where you can utilize your natural strengths is going to be fulfilling. The best careers for INFJ people tend to have a focus on doing something meaningful that contributes to people’s well-being in some way. INFJs work best in jobs where they can have time and space to reflect and come up with the insights of humanity they are good at and can share.

Disorganized Schizophrenia: An Easy Guide To What You Need To Know

Do you know someone suffering from disorganized schizophrenia?

Disorganized schizophrenia is a type of schizophrenia that is related to changes in a person behavior. However, these changes in their personal behavior and thoughts, are often illogical and inconsistent, and it can affect their day to day lives.

Like any form of mental illness, Disorganized schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that will affect a person, and their close family members throughout their life. Thus, it is important to ensure that you are well equipped with understanding what this mental disorder could entail for you and your family.

What is Disorganized Schizophrenia

Disorganized schizophrenia, also known as hebephrenic schizophrenia, is one of the five types of schizophrenia. As the name suggests, it is characterized by disorganization in speech and in the way patients express their emotions.

Disorganized schizophrenics are often told apart from other schizophrenics and from non-schizophrenic patients for having troubled speech patterns, being very emotionally unstable—oscillating between emotions quite often—and showing incoherent and confusing thought processes. They also have a difficult time communicating with others and may show inadequate social behaviors, which can lead to social exclusion.

Disorganized schizophrenia is a chronic mental health disorder but there are treatments and medication out there that can improve the life of schizophrenic patient significantly. The help of family and friends is also crucial to attenuate the complications that hebephrenic schizophrenia brings, bettering the life of the patient.

Disorganized Schizophrenia Symptoms

The main symptoms associated with disorganized schizophrenia tend to include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized thoughts, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms. In particular, negative symptoms denote the concept that people may not be able to care for their personal hygiene.

Disorganized Speech And Disorganized Thinking

This is often the first symptom to come up in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenics suffering from this particular type of schizophrenia will experience incoherent speech patterns, often not being able to convey what they mean to the people surrounding them. It is not uncommon for hebephrenic schizophrenics to jump from one topic to another, make up words that only they know the meaning to, rhyme without noticing they’re doing it, and repeat the same things over and over again when trying to keep up a conversation.

There is the same kind of disorganization in the thinking process as there is in the speech patterns. Mental connections deteriorate because of the disease and start to affect both speech and day-to-day activities negatively.

Disorganized behavior

Once again, disorganization is the key symptom to describe someone with hebephrenic schizophrenia. Patients have a very hard time functioning independently and this is easily seen in the difficulty they have in starting or finishing a task without help from other people. Mundane tasks such as taking a shower or cooking a simple meal become herculean tasks for someone with this type of schizophrenia. Patients start to lose independence and not being able to perform normal everyday activities and they start to lose routines to the point where they can be completely lost.

In addition to this, their emotional behavior can be severely changed to the point where it’s not uncommon for friends and family to say to patients that they aren’t recognizable anymore and are acting weirdly. A disorganized schizophrenic will typically act bizarrely and their actions will lack purpose to non-schizophrenics.

All this can also be tied to the fact that disorganized schizophrenia leads to a lack of impulse control, which also affects one’s ability to socialize with non-schizophrenics.

Inappropriate emotional response

Disorganized schizophrenics have difficulty controlling their emotions and express them differently than non-schizophrenics. They tend to show little to no emotional expression on their faces, their tone of voice, and their body language. It is also not uncommon for them to express the wrong emotion to a sensitive situation; for example, they might start laughing at a funeral.

Hebephrenic schizophrenics are also characterized by behaving in a child-like and silly manner in public, connected to an inability to hold back emotions and know how to express them properly given the social context. They might also become aggressive or overtly sexual in social contexts even if they are unprovoked. Avoiding eye contact, freezing in place, moving excessively and other catatonic behaviors are all things patients with this type of schizophrenia have to deal with on a regular basis. This serves as an explanation as to why they usually tend to avoid social interactions.

Hallucinations and delusions

The commonly held idea that schizophrenics see, feel, taste, smell, and hear things that aren’t there holds true in this case, with the latter symptom being the most common among patients.

Delusions are also very common. Disorganized schizophrenics have the (false) feeling and belief that they’re being persecuted, show signs of feeling guilty often, and usually believe to possess super-human powers (such as exceptionally good hearing…) These feelings and beliefs lead disorganized schizophrenics to isolate themselves from other people, usually by hiding as a way to protect themselves from the fictional persecutor.

Other Types Of Schizophrenia

Besides disorganized schizophrenia, there are four other sub-types of schizophrenia: catatonic, undifferentiated, paranoid, and residual. Each of these sub-types has their own primary characteristics. These are all forms of mental illness and share many of the same traits. They are both a men’s and women’s health problem.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by the lack of speech and strange postures that the patients show. They can often be seen twitching and making odd motions without being provoked by an outside person or situation. They may also mimic people, as well as try to repeat their words.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized by the delusions and hallucinations that are usually associated with a certain theme, such as seeing a lost loved one. People with this sub-type tend to see and hear things that are not actually there, hence the name “paranoid.”

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Undifferentiated schizophrenia is marked by the seeming lack of the symptoms seen in those who have schizophrenia, such as paranoia. People who have this type of schizophrenia do still have these symptoms, but they are simply not as noticeable and do not occur often.

Residual schizophrenia

Residual schizophrenia is the type in which the patient’s positive symptoms have fully disappeared, but the more negative symptoms continue to haunt them, such as a loss of interest in their goals and odd behavior. This can sometimes be mistaken for depression or bipolar disorder, but it’s important to note that this is not the case.

These four, in addition to disorganized hebephrenic schizophrenia, make up the five sub-types of schizophrenia. Some patients may display symptoms of schizophrenia and not be diagnosed under any of these five categories because their ailment is something else, for example, schizoaffective disorder.

Disorganized Schizophrenia: Talk To Your Mental Health Profession For Help

Today, the stigma of mental illness is slowly deteriorating! risk factors associated with disorganized schizophrenia have now been identified, and include genetic, viral infection, fetal malnutrition, stress, drugs, and more! It is important to speak to your mental health professional should you suffer—or know someone who is suffering from disorganized schizophrenia.

 

Do you or someone you know have disorganized schizophrenia? Do you have any more questions about this mental illness? Reach out to us for more information! 

Sources

https://www.psycom.net/schizophrenia-5-subtypes
https://www.psycom.net/disorganized-schizophrenia-hebephrenia
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/disorganized-schizophrenia
https://mentalhealthdaily.com/2014/04/04/disorganized-schizophrenia-symptoms-causes-treatment/

Duck Syndrome: It’s More Serious Than It Sounds

 

Have you ever felt like everyone always thinks you have it all together and are doing great? But, in reality, you are stressed out to the max and just barely managing to keep up? You could have joined the raft of people experiencing symptoms of Duck Syndrome.

two ducks on a lake which represents Stanford Duck Syndrome

What is Stanford Duck Syndrome

Stanford Duck Syndrome is an informal term. It is used to refer to a mismatch between the calmness and control that someone, for all appearances and purposes, may seem, but in reality, they are not. Why ducks? Watch a duck in water. On the surface, they seem to be effortlessly drifting along the surface. There may be a few ripples as they move, but all looks calm and well. When you take a closer look underneath the water, those little legs are paddling furiously to keep them afloat. The calmness is only on the surface, underneath there is a great deal of effort needed to keep moving in the direction they want to. It can be exhausting.

Duck Syndrome or Stanford Duck Syndrome has become a popular term in the last few years to refer to this phenomenon. Why Stanford? The syndrome has been identified among college students at Stanford University, along with other colleges and high schools. It is particularly used within those of the millennial generation entering the workforce. As yet there is, however, no clinical diagnosis.

Two Other Duck Syndromes of the People Variety

  • Baby duck syndrome is a term used by computer geeks to describe how humans interact with computers. We are said to learn, like baby ducks, from the first computer system we see. We tend to base our expectations for future systems on our first imprint from our first computer, or “mother duck” that we followed so to speak!
  • Ugly duckling syndrome tends to be used for those people who grow up being singled out as different. They later blossom or transform into more socially accepted ‘norms’. They may struggle throughout life to accept that they are ok. That they are not the oddball or ugly duckling that bullies led them to believe when they were young.

Stanford Duck Syndrome Symptoms

a duck swimming in a lake which shows duck syndrome symptoms

Given there are no official diagnostic criteria for Duck Syndrome, as yet, there are no ‘formal’ symptoms. What may be obvious is how you present yourself to the outside world and others are not the same as what you what you are feeling inside.

  • You may feel like an imposter, but nobody tends to want to show themselves as a lame duck.
  • You may present and project a feeling of calmness and serenity, gliding around life effortlessly. However, in reality, your inside feels like it is tied up knots and you feel like no matter how hard you work, you aren’t really getting anywhere fast.
  • It may start out as a “faking it until you make it kind of attitude”. But, you may be hiding and denying symptoms of anxiety and depression from yourself and others.

Who Is at Risk for Stanford Duck Syndrome

a collage of faces of people with stanford duck syndrome

There are a few general groups of people at risk for Duck Syndrome. These include:

Younger People

The millennial generation and younger students coming through high school and college are often thought of as being the most at risk for Stanford Duck Syndrome than in adults. There are enormous social pressures embedded in this age group in any generation. Right now, these baby ducks are the generations growing up with the expectation that they can have it all. Combine this with the usual social pressures associated with adolescence and growing into adults, and boom. You can you can have people unwilling to show they are coping or achieving what they thought they would.

Prolific Social Media Users

Social media encourages people to present a false facade to the world, which is a symptom of duck syndrome. Who hasn’t posed and re-posed for a selfie until they look their absolute best before posting it?! What this does though is create a false sense of needing to be perfect before you show your face. In a sense, social media users may be sitting ducks for developing duck syndrome if they only ever post what is socially acceptable as ideal.

High Achievers

When anyone has been a high-achiever in any area, the expectation and pressures from themselves and others to maintain this level of performance can be intense, and unrealistic. This is particularly so in the USA today. They may not accept and admit they are not achieving what they have in the past, or a striving to do for the future. They may continue to put up a front of being ok with what and how they are doing, but actually, they are not.

People with Existing Mental Health Conditions

People with existing or predisposition to mental health illnesses can be at risk. In particular, anyone who has social anxieties, learning problems, low self-esteem, a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Or anyone who finds it particularly hard to find ways to cope emotionally with the hard stuff in life.

People during Stressful Life Situations

 The big stressors of life may be risk factors for developing Duck Syndrome. These include moving to a new location, or away from home. Coping with a bereavement, financial stress or physical or psychological bullying or violence are also major stressors. In all of these situations, the pressure to say everything’s ok, when it may not be can be great.

Perfectionists

Even for people who are not perfectionists, as such, there is a great deal of external pressure from society for perfectionism. That can include honing the perfect body, finding the perfect partner, having the perfect career, buying the perfect house. Getting the perfect marks for grades or any scoring points on any type of project outcome at school or work is desirable. No one can be perfect all of the time, and it is ok to say you are not!

How to Treat Stanford Duck Syndrome

hands reaching out in the air which refers to symptoms of duck syndrome

If you think you are experiencing or developing Duck Syndrome, do not be afraid to reach out for help and support.

  • Health professionals may look for and treat any underlying conditions to help you get back on track. These may include anxiety, depression, or other mental health issues. They may look at medical interventions, and counseling or therapy exercises and sessions to talk you through your options.
  • Friends, true ones, can be a great support in accepting you just as you are. It can be a big relief in itself to find your friends and peers are struggling in similar ways you are. Talk to them, and you may find they reply saying they feel the same. Surround yourself with authentic friends and family. Choose people who have reasonable expectations and believe in you no matter what you do. People who care about your health and well-being.
  • Set yourself realistic goals to achieve for all areas of your life. If you do not quite achieve them the first time, admit it, accept it, and try again. You may need to adapt your approach. You may need to take smaller baby steps or achieve smaller stepping-stones or milestones to get to your ultimate goal.
  • Find ways to manage your stressors and mental health, in general, to try to prevent things becoming overwhelming. Sometimes this can involve reducing the number of activities you do for a while, and be simplifying your life so you are not trying to achieve it all at once.

Final Thoughts

Although not a formal clinical diagnosis, people are increasingly referring to duck syndrome as a problem for people today. It is ok and desirable to strive for what you want and need. It is equally ok to front up and admit to yourself and others if things are not quite according to plan.

 Sources

https://www.medicinenet.com/duck_syndrome/article.htm#what_are_causes_and_risk_factors_for_duck_syndrome
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-gen-y-guide/201705/millennial-duck-syndrome
http://www.marieclaire.co.uk/news/duck-syndrome-what-is-it-60481
https://dr-carol.com/2011/12/15/the-duck-syndrome/
http://web.stanford.edu/dept/CTL/cgi-bin/academicskillscoaching/why-does-the-duck-stop-here/
https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/b/baby-duck-syndrome.htm

Types of Empaths: What Kind Are You?

Are you wondering what an empath is and what types of empaths there are in life? There are many blurry lines for people to consider. Do they have psychic abilities? Are they spiritual? What is the difference between someone who shows empathy and being an empath?

Types of Empaths

Image Source: Pixabay

Empath Definition

An empath is empathetic, and more. Many people can be empathetic or show empathic concern. That means the ability to be able to think about, understand, and feel compassion for other people. This is cognitive empathy for people’s feelings and emotions. Empathetic people do not just show concern or act sympathetically. They are able to imagine themselves in someone else’s situation. In other words, what it must feel like in that other person’s shoes.

An empath has the ability to physically feel and experience what another person is going through. They literally embody what is going on for other people, and the energy around them. This means their ability to show empathy is huge. They understand deeply what it is like for another person.

There are also many different types of empaths. Being an empath may coincide with a person’s spiritual beliefs, but equally, it may not. Some empaths have the ability to perceive what is happening to other people, animals, plants, the environment, and more.

Am I An Empath?

Types of Empaths

Image Source: Pixabay

Are you wondering if you are an empath? If you are, you may find you can relate and connect with many different traits that empaths experience. Some of these include:

  • You may be highly sensitive and always very aware of everything going on around you in life.
  • Being alone or in solitude can be absolute bliss and something you love and need to regularly to keep on top of things.
  • Being in a big group is not a comfortable place for you. You may find big crowds and people with noisy energy overwhelming.
  • You may hate or recoil at any type of conflict or violence of any kind.
  • Kids and animals love you to bits, they seem naturally drawn to you and your energy.
  • Listening to other people is something you love and enjoy, and people approach you for advice, guidance and the empathy you show.
  • Your emotions may sometimes be like “six seasons in one day” and you often feel emotional.
  • Your mood and energy levels throughout the day may fluctuate depending on where you are and who you are with.
  • You feel the physical pain of another person. If someone else has a backache, your body feels it too.
  • Your own physical, emotional, and mental reserves may often feel depleted as if you have used all your energy.

Types of Empaths

Many people refer to different types of empaths. Empath ability may, or may not, be tied in with spiritual beliefs and awareness. Each different type has usually has a stronger ability in one particular area. Empaths may feel many empathic traits in more than one sense to varying degrees.

Emotional

Emotional empaths will sense and absorb the emotions and energy of other people, and feel them as well. They will just know whether someone else is sad or depressed, or happy and ecstatic. An emotionally receptive empath will feel the same and know how the other person is feeling without having to ask. They display natural emotional empathy because they get how the other person is feeling. They will also see through any façade or front that another person may be putting up to hide how they are really feeling.

Physical

Physical empaths will feel or know where other people’s aches, pains, and illnesses are when they are in their presence. This may be an intuitive awareness or sense of what symptoms someone else has. They may actually feel the same physical symptoms or pain in their own body. For example, they may get a headache when in the company of someone else with a headache. If they are with someone with low energy, their energy levels will drop as well. They often sense what the other person may need in terms of healing.

Intellectual

Intellectual empaths find themselves able to communicate with different vocabulary and jargon. This can happen in different contexts and in an instant. They may find their communication style and use of language and phrases just adapts to what another person is using. They do not consciously think about mirroring behavior or trying to build rapport, it just happens.

Intuitive

Intuitive empaths have an innate sense of knowing. This may be something that cannot actually be physically seen or be something that is about to happen. Their dreams may be precognitive — they become reality and actually happen in the following days or weeks. They know when someone is lying, and are very perceptive about other people’s overt or covert intentions.

Animal

Animal empaths are usually the horse whisperers and dog whisperers of the world. These empaths have a sense of what an individual animal is feeling, experiencing and needs. They not only love the animals they connect with, they may prefer their company than that of other people! And vice versa, animals feel the pull towards an empath as well.

Plant

Types of Empaths

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Plant empaths are people with strong connections to nature and what plants and trees need and offer. They are the green-fingered gardeners and growers who love being in nature. Plants will thrive in their presence. They will intuitively know how to care and tend to any type of foliage. Plant empaths also have an awareness of plants uses and functions. They will know what is edible and what the environment needs for ecological balance and sustainability.

Environmental

Environmental or geomantic empaths intuitively sense what has happened or may happen in a physical space. Similarly, psychometric empaths can ‘read’ a physical object. When they enter a room or new location, they are sensitive to what may have happened within that environment before. When they hold or touch objects, they may be able to glean information about the owner.

Spiritual Empaths

Spiritual empaths may have a direct connection to other realms. Also known as medium empaths, they may feel they connect with the deceased or other spiritual beings from their belief systems. Their psychic empathic ability will include being able to feel emotional and physical symptoms from their communication with the spiritual world. This works in the same way as an emotional empath connects with other people in the physical world.

Heyoka

Types of Empaths

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The term Heyoka empath is a Native American term used to describe an empath that functions as a trickster or an unconventional go-between. Heyoka empaths are disrupters, but not in a negative sense. They have the empathic ability to move between both physical and spiritual worlds and act as a psychic medium to communicate between. They absorb others emotions and feelings and act as a mirror to show others what they need to see about themselves or the opposite direction.

When You Are An Empath or Know One

If you think you are an empath or have someone in your life who is, you will know that is not always an easy way to be. Being this sensitive to other people’s emotions, energy, and the environment can be hard. Some tips for empaths include knowing the different types of empaths. That way they can develop skills needed to look after themselves and maintain their own space and boundaries. There may be times when an empath needs to step away from their empathic, psychic, or spiritual side. Finding a way not to absorb and take on other people’s ‘stuff’ will help with regaining a sense of individual self within their lives. On the plus side, being an empath is a considered a gift to be used wisely in life.

Schizoid Personality Disorder: A Must Read Guide

Personality disorders are often given a stigma to those who suffer with these as though they are “crazy” or unpredictable. However, this is an underserved stigma and one that the world is working on changing. One of the disorders out there that many people do not realize even exists is called Schizoid Personality Disorder. What is this? What are the symptoms? These are all questions that we are going to answer!

Schizoid Personality Disorder

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What is Schizoid Personality Disorder?

This is often referred to as the loner disorder. Why is this? Because those that have this disorder are often what you would consider typical loners. Schizoid Personality Disorder is described as simply being indifferent to what is going on around you and to those relationships they could be having. While someone on the outside can see that a person is not interacting socially, those with this disorder often never realize that they have a problem. To them, this is simply natural.

Schizoid Definition

What is the definition of Schizoid? Psychology Today defined the Schizoid personality as being a pattern of indifference to social relationships, with limited range of emotional express and experience.

This definition shows why many have labeled this the Loner Disorder. But, it is something that a person can get over when they are given the proper treatment. Many may associate this disorder with another disorder such as bipolar disorder; a psychotic disorder, anxiety disorders and the like, which a person may have. Researchers are looking into the correlation between having this disorder and an increased chance of developing schizophrenia in later life.

Schizoid Personality

What type of personality does a person with Schizoid Personality Disorder have? They may often seem as though they have no emotions at all. When discussing something upsetting, those who suffer with this personality disorder may look at though they are not interested. It can make them appear awkward,  and feeling and as though they simply do not care when in personal situations.

Schizoid vs Schizotypal

If you are dealing with someone who has Schizoid Personality Disorder, it is the “schizo” part of the disorder that often scares people. This is because they are thinking of Schizotypal personality disorder which is a similar sounding mental health condition. To better understand these, let’s take a look at each.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined as a mental health condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and disturbances in their thought patterns, appearance and behavior. They often act inappropriately in the way they deal with others and show their feelings.

In addition, those with schizotypal often:

  • Have odd believes
  • Believe in fantasy
  • Dress strangely
  • Be preoccupied or fear things that others deem harmless
  • They are preoccupied with themselves
  • They are in the state of mind that everything that happens in the outside world relates to them, even if it does not.

For those who are suffering with Schizoid Personality Disorder they may have trouble with personal relationships as well. However, they are not going to be classified as strange in the way they think or dress. They simply show no emotion, which makes a person feel as though they are heartless or simply do not care.

Both disorders are thought to have genetic and environmental effects that play a role. There are several speculations that believe that if a childhood that was bleak, (absent of warmth or emotion) this could be one of the reasons why people later develop these disorders. Please note that those who have these disorders are not considered threats to society or themselves. They simply do not interact well with people and crowds.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

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These two disorders are often confused since they are both categorized as a Cluster A personality disorder. However, knowing the difference is a must. As each is going to require a different type of treatment plan to get the person back to what is considered normal. Also note that more men than women have this disorder.

Schizoid Personality Disorder Symptoms

There are several symptoms that are seen in those who do suffer with Schizoid Personality Disorder. A person has to showcase at least four of these symptoms in order to be diagnosed with this disorder. And they have to be evident for a long time in the person’s life usually since early adulthood to be considered the textbook definition of this disorder. These symptoms are:

  1. They have no desire or enjoyment being in close relationships, including being a part of a family.
  2. They almost always choose to do solitary activities.
  3. They have little, if any, sexual experiences with other people.
  4. They take pleasure in a few, sometimes none, activities whatsoever.
  5. They may talk with their first-degree relatives, but they lack any close friends or confidants.
  6. They appear indifferent when someone praises or criticizes them.
  7. They often seem cold emotionally, or simply detached from the situation at hand.

Flat Affect

The Flat Affect refers to the emotional response, or lack of emotional response, that those with this disorder show. They are often considered flat in how they respond. A person with this disorder could have someone yell at them, call them names, and never flinch. Whereas a normal person may get upset or angry, those with this disorder often seem indifferent or just shrug it off as though it doesn’t bother them.

They seldom show any type of emotion, which is why they are often described as being “flat”. Whereas, “normal” people often show happiness during the holidays, those with this disorder often just look at this as another day. For those who suffer with this, they often don’t even realize that their demeanor comes off as being cold or off putting. That is why it is extremely important that people realize what this personality disorder is, so they truly understand that those who suffer with this mental health issue cannot help the flat affect they demonstrate.

In addition, those who are dealing with this disorder often do not have much variations in their moods. Normal people may be angry one day, sad one day, happy for several days and then repeat the cycle. However, those with this disorder seem to be simply flat in their feelings day after day. Due to not showing emotion or not feeling any type of emotion, this is something that therapists are studying now.

No Close Relationships: The Typical Loner

Perhaps the most common trait of those who have SPD is that they are considered your typical loner. They have few friends and no close relationships at all. Those who have this disorder are often seen living alone, they don’t go out often, if at all, into social situations. Why is this? They simply have no desire to do this. Whereas other young adults are all about their hormones, those with this disorder would prefer to sit at their home and do something that is considered a lone activity. They have no desire to talk to others and be around them at all.

This type of behavior does affect their personal relationships as well. Most people who have this disorder are not married because they are indifferent to a relationship that involves sexual interaction. Due to their avoidance behavior, most of these people avoid sexual interaction and any type of intimacy, as it simply does not interest them.

Best When Alone

Those who have this disorder often find that they are best when left alone. Social exchanges are awkward for everyone involved. However, the person with this disorder does not often realize that they are being awkward, they simply have no desire to participate. This is why they are often seen working in professions that do not require that they have to be socially involved as much. Those with this disorder often work best in their own home, online where they do not have to interact as much with people.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

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Avoidant Behavior

One of the biggest signs of this disorder is that many people display an avoidant behavior. They often avoid those situations that are highly social, in which they know that they would have to interact with other people. Is their brain wired to do this? Or do they just feel uncomfortable? This is something that has been debated for several years. However, since most of those who have this disorder do not have any idea that their behavior is off putting, they simply do not see anything wrong with the avoidant behavior that they have. To those who suffer with this, they are normal. They may even find you a little strange, especially if you are a social butterfly!

Schizoid Personality Disorder Treatment

For those who have Schizoid Personality Disorder, treatment is often harder than they realize. For one, those who suffer with this disorder often don’t know if they want to change. After all, they have survived this long without forming lasting connections with people and not being emotionally involved. The idea of change is one that is rather scary and one that they may feel is unnecessary. When a person does make the choice to make some changes in their life, there are a few treatment options that they have.

The use of psychotherapy aka talk therapy has been shown to be a great way to help those with this disorder. This type of therapy is meant to change those behaviors that are considered a problem, and it also helps to allow someone to start opening up about their personal life, a new idea for those who suffer with this disorder. The idea is that the therapist can guide you through this situation until you are feeling more comfortable with talking with others. The therapist will know when to push and when to back off when you are talking more personal, something that is constantly worked on while in therapy sessions.

Group therapy is also an option. With this option, sufferers are with others who suffer with the same disorder, which can make it easier to open up for several people. Many therapists find that group therapy is great for helping to increase the person’s social skills. Over time, the group becomes more of a support group and one that you can turn to when you feel you are going back to your old ways. It can be a great way to get with like minded individuals who are going through the same struggles as you are.

Medication

The final treatment method is through medication. It should be noted that there is no certain medication that is meant to cure SPD. However, there are medications that can be given that can help a person cope. For example, many SPD sufferers find that anxiety and depression are a problem. Thus, medications can be given to relieve these symptoms.

The treatment that is outlined for one patient, may not be what is given to another patient. Treatment is given to a person on a personal basis. Thus, what works for one may not work for another. Many therapists find that treatment is a lot of trial and error to see what works the best and what is not giving results.

Managing Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder is something that can be healed and can be changed. Those who suffer with this can get treatment that is going to help them live a fulfilling life if they take the time to find the treatment that works. However, be warned that those who suffer with this disorder may need some convincing from family members that they do need help, since the way they act is considered normal to them. Do you know someone that fits this description? If so, try to get them help as they will have a more fulfilling life if they are able to see what their problems are!

INTJ Careers: What This Personality Type Excels In

Are you looking for INTJ Careers? When you are starting your career, understanding the strengths of your personality type is a smart move. The same stands if you are thinking about changing career paths. One of the popular personality tests used by employers and careers advisors is the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI). This questionnaire looks at how you behave. And, how you prefer to make decisions and interact and communicate with others. The MBTI identifies 16 personality types. Knowing your own type indicator can help with making career choices.

INTJ Careers

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What is INTJ Personality

What does INTJ stand for? The letters in each of the 16 MBTI types relate to the four types of behaviors and traits you score highest in. An INTJ personality is one that scores highly in Introversion, Intuition, Thinking, and Judging. Not a large percentage of people in the population score as the INTJ combination, so if you have, you are unique! INTJ men slightly outnumber INTJ women. The characteristics of the INTJ indicators are:

  • Introversion: As a personality trait, an INTJ person feels more energized when they are alone or with a few close people. They are not comfortable being the center of attention in a large group or crowd. They may outwardly seem quiet, reserved, and introverted, but they are often deep thinkers.
  • Intuition: The intuitive personality trait in an INTJ presents as being able to see and reflect on possibilities and look to the future. They have an understanding of the bigger picture. They see how everything else fits within a system and where to adjust if needed.
  • Thinking: INTJ people are intelligent thinkers. They tend to make rational decisions based on facts and logic and enjoy these kinds of discussions.
  • Judging: INTJ people will take a structured, planned, and organized approach. They can be very decisive in their assessment and judgment of any situation.

INTJ Personality Traits

INTJ Careers

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Some of the personality traits and INTJ strengths are:

  • Independence: INTJs are often independent thinkers and workers. They work best in on their own or in small like-minded groups.
  • Problem Solvers: INTJs have a strong drive to seek solutions to problems. They like to find new, improved, and innovative ways of doing things and will share these with others.
  • Logical: The INTJ person applies logic and has to understand how something works or functions. They systematically work through every aspect to either predict or reach an outcome. They can always see the bigger picture.
  • Confidence: INTJs are usually self-assured. They have a good sense of who they are and their own competence. To others, this may come across as haughtiness or arrogance, but that is not the intention.
  • Learners: INTJ people usually have a need to learn throughout life. They may set their first goal for a bachelor’s degree. Once they have achieved that, a master’s degree is a must. They will seek new professional and personal experiences and are always curious to learn more about the world they live in.
  • Planners: INTJ people prefer structure and tend to be planners and organizers. Their planning ability and drive to get things done and see what is possible usually means they have successful outcomes.
  • Reserved: In their interaction with others, INTJs may seem quiet and reserved. They prefer to form stable relationships based on shared values and goals. They often form solid personal and professional relationships with INTP personality types.
  • Relationships: INTJ relationships, both personal and professional, tend to be loyal and supportive. However, it is important for the INTJ personality to have their independence within any type of relationship.

INTJ Careers

INTJ personality types excel in careers where they can work independently and use their intelligence. They are often suited to working in professional occupations. INTJ careers may include those within the physical and social sciences, technology, computing, finance, business, engineering, law, higher education, and research. They are hardworking and often goal driven. They do well in careers where they have competency requirements to meet and maintain. On ongoing professional development is usually important.

INTJ Jobs & Career List

INTJ Careers

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So what specific jobs and careers for INTJs personality types may be good? There are many career choices. Some types of careers great for INTJs include:

  • Analyst: INTJs suit being analysts of all kinds. Whether computer and business systems analysts, health analysts, financial analysts, and so on. These are positions where they may be analyzing data and statistics to come up with solutions.
  • Engineering: Any of the engineering professions can be a good fit for an INTJ personality type. Their ability to see, design, and build structures and systems lends well to engineering whether it be electrical, computer, mechanical, environmental, software, civil, or chemical engineering, etc.
  • Lawyer:  An INTJ personality type may well start as a lawyer and end up on the Judge’s bench! They have the strong investigative skills needed in the legal system. Similarly, they may rise through the ranks in the police force to become detectives.
  • Doctor/Dentist/Health Professionals: INTJs can find their strengths ideal working in health professions. Whether they become general physicians, surgeons, dentists, or other health practitioners and specialists in particular fields. They also suit allied fields such as pharmacy and optometry. These are all professions that may involve diagnosing, treating and finding solutions for health problems.
  • Researchers: INTJ personality types are within academia and scientific roles. Their curiosity to find out how things work suits researching roles within both the physical and social sciences. The combination of the structured nature of academia with the premise of academic freedom in a career to pursue and explore interests also suits this personality type.
  • Writer: Any writing roles that involve the gathering of data or information and summarizing it into a whole body of work or article that sums up a situation often suit INTJs. Especially technical writing, editing, and investigative journalism type work where they are reflecting on the desired outcome as they go through the writing process.
  • Consultants: When they have reached expert levels in their fields, the next step for INTJ personality types is often consulting. In a consulting or self-employed role, they have the freedom to be autonomous but are still engaged in working to find solutions for various systems.

INTJ Careers to Avoid

We all bring many personality traits to different careers and occupations. Even so, there are some careers INTJs are usually best to avoid. Positions where an INTJ does not have the autonomy, independence, and/or freedom to make or suggest changes may not suit. Jobs, where they need to frequently talk and speak with other people, may also not appeal. The types of roles INTJs should most avoid include those in production work, administrative and clerical tasks, telemarketing, sales, and teacher or health assistant positions. They may also find they do not function the best as a full-time stay at home parent unless they combine this with the fulfillment of other personal or professional goals.

Final Thoughts

For any MBTI personality type, finding a role where you can utilize your natural strengths is going to be fulfilling. INTJ careers can be demanding ones, but this is often what people of this personality type may seek, albeit in their reserved and quiet fashion. They need challenges for their own continued development and activities that use their INTJ strengths – their ability to plan and think. INTJs are both thinkers and doers. These types are analytical and strategic. They have an ability to understand complex ideas and systems turn them around into something easier for others to understand.

ENFP Careers: What This Personality Type Excels In

Are you looking for careers for ENFP personality types? When you are starting your career, understanding the strengths of your personality type is a good start. The same stands if you are thinking about changing career paths. One of the popular personality tests used by employers and careers advisors is the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI). This questionnaire looks at how you behave. And, how you prefer to make decisions and interact and communicate with others. The Myers-Briggs test identifies 16 personality types. Knowing your own type indicator can help with making career choices.

ENFP Careers

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What is ENFP Personality

What does ENFP stand for? The letters in each of the 16 MBTI personality test types relate to the four types of behaviors and traits you score highest in. An ENFP personality is one that scores highly in Extraversion, Intuition, Feeling, and Perception. It is a relatively common type among the wider population, and there tends to be a slightly higher percentage of female ENFPs than male ENFPs.

  • Extraversion: ENFP people are motivated and energized the most when they are around other people. People with this extraverted personality trait are usually outgoing. They love interacting within group situations and getting to know a wide range of other people.
  • Intuition: The intuitive personality trait in an ENFP presents as being able to see and reflect on possibilities and look to the future. They have an understanding of the bigger picture. They see how everything else fits within a system and where to adjust if needed using critical thinking skills to reflect and evaluate.
  • Feeling: ENFP people value the social impact and implications of any decision. They will tend to go with and place a lot of value on personal or “gut” feelings when making decisions. They will usually always consider other people’s points of view.
  • Perception: ENFP people are very open to possibilities and new information. This personality type is flexible and if they feel they need to, they will consider and explore different options.

ENFP Personality Traits

ENFP Careers

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Some of the personality traits and strengths and weaknesses of ENFP personality types are:

  • Communicative: ENFPs are true “people people”. They are not usually introverted at all and are very open communicators. They enjoy interacting and sharing information with other people and networking. ENFPs have an extraverted intuition. They are strong on social perceptiveness and usually very empathetic to the concerns and needs of others.
  • Passion: ENFPs will follow something with a passion, whether as a hobby or a career. They are often attracted to social causes where they see they can help make change for the better of humanity.
  • Enthusiasm: ENFPs like to dive in wholeheartedly into work and play activities and explore new things. They are usually energetic and motivated and like to encourage others to be so as well.
  • Curiosity: ENFPs are often curious about what makes things tick, especially people. They like diversity and may look for a range of activities and relationships that given them a broad experience of all that life has to offer. If something is too mundane, they may get bored.
  • Creativity: ENFPs are often very creative and drawn to music, art, fashion, theatre, creative writing, and so forth. They will take a creative approach to problem solving. Different situations and possibilities inspire them.
  • Individualistic: Although very social people, they usually prefer to see themselves, and others, as unique individuals. They need to feel a sense of personal freedom in whatever they do, including how they choose to express themselves.
  • Flexibility: ENFPs are flexible and will adapt to different situations easily. If something becomes too routine, they may become bored – change is good for these folk! They can also be very spontaneous and be the first to put their hand up for something new or different.
  • Relationships: ENFPs are very relationship driven in both their personal and professional lives. They place great value on the importance of healthy and happy relationships. They will usually be warm, supportive, and encouraging with others.

ENFP Careers

ENFP personality types often excel in careers where they can be creative, interact with other people, and find solutions to life’s issues. If attending university, an initial associate’s degree can be a good option while they learn what is on offer. Bachelor’s degrees and master’s degrees in the social sciences, arts, and humanities may then appeal to this personality type. They tend to do well in human resource positions, sales and marketing, service roles, and as allied health practitioners. These types of jobs give the ENFP personality the opportunity combine their strengths. Within this type of work, they can engage with other people to come up proactive solutions.

ENFP Jobs & Career List

ENFP Careers

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An ENFP personality type may explore different career paths throughout their life. Their people skills are well suited to many occupations and entrepreneurial type activities.

Some types of careers that are great for ENFPs include:

  • Teachers: With their easy and open communication styles, ENFPs are natural teachers. They do well in the education system and in workplaces teaching others in learning and development jobs. They usually have a natural ability to engage and motivate others to learn.
  • Social Scientists: ENFP personality types make great researchers and social scientists. Fields such as sociology, social anthropology, town planning, conservation, and architecture give them the opportunity to work with and for “the people”, look to the future, and communicate their findings.
  • Allied Health: An ENFP personality can be well suited to working in health and social services. With their desire to find out what is going on for people and help them achieve their goals roles such psychologists, counselors, social work, occupational health and safety, massage and physical therapy therapists, speech-language pathologists, and veterinary care may suit.
  • Service Roles: The ENFPs networking skills come to the fore in many types of service roles. They often enjoy working in jobs in retail, childcare, fitness and exercise trainers, cosmetology and hairdressing, and hospitality.
  • Entertainment: The expressive and creative streak in the ENFP personality makes them ideal for careers in the performing arts. Famous ENFPs have pursued acting, singing, or dancing careers where they can showcase their talents to other people.
  • Designers: The artistic side of the ENFP personality type suits careers as artists and designers of most kinds. For example, graphic and multimedia design, floral design, interior design, and so forth.
  • Communication: The ENFP personality has a natural ability to communicate and coordinate. This suits occupations such as public relations, marketing, sales, human resources, and customer service. They often become entrepreneurs.

ENFP Careers to Avoid

We all bring many personality traits to different careers and occupations. Even so, there are some careers ENFP personality types are usually best to avoid. It is best to avoid positions that involve a lot of mundane repetition or working within rigid structures. ENFP people like to push boundaries a little and have the freedom to explore. Having a job just for the sake of having a job will not lead to much job satisfaction. They like to feel that they are contributing and adding value. They probably will not do well in occupations such as engineering, routine administration, or within the military.

Final Thoughts

For any MBTI personality type, finding a role where you can utilize your natural strengths is going to be fulfilling. ENFP careers tend to be people focused. Even in a job that involves more paperwork than people the ENFP person will always be the sharing the ideas and communicating with the rest of the team. ENFP people need the flexibility and freedom to think outside the box to come up with innovative solutions for the best for everyone.

Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria: A Tell-All Guide

Do you have ADHD? Have you heard about rejection-sensitive dysphoria? Characterized by the strong emotional response and a fear of certain situations. Rejection sensitive dysphoria is a form and symptom of mental illness that is strongly associated with attention deficit hypersensitivity disorder.

So, in this article, we’ll cover all you need to know about rejection sensitivity, and how it may affect your day-to-day life!

What is RSD or Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria

If you’ve been diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD, then you’ve probably experienced episodes of Rejection sensitive dysphoria. Well, rejection-sensitive dysphoria is a form of mental illness, where a person may experience severe emotional sensitivity and emotional pain.

Generally, this means that people with ADHD will perceive a situation negatively, when in reality the situation may not aim to cause them emotional pain. Let’s look at an example; if a person with rejection-sensitive dysphoria was to receive a delayed “text message response” from a person they are fond of, then that person with RSD may experience symptoms such as anxiety and low-self esteem.

Rejection Definition

By definition, rejection denotes to the action where a person’s ideas, concepts, behavior, etc may be refused or dismissed for a given reason. Generally, rejection can come in the form of social rejection or emotional rejection. This may result in a person developing severe anxiety in a specific situation, loss of self-esteem, and a feeling of hopelessness.

Dysphoria Definition

In general, the term dysphoria comes from the Greek word, dysphoros, which translates to hard to bear. Therefore, dysphoria simply can be defined as a feeling or state of mind that’s hard to bear, or uneasy.

Often people may often associate gender dysphoria with rejection-sensitive dysphoria. However, it is important to note that gender dysphoria refers to idea where a person may be dissatisfied or displeased with the gender they were born with. This form of mental illness was commonly referred to as gender identity disorder and has sparked much debate in the LGBTQ community.

Rejection Sensitivity and Relationships

In 1996, a study discovered that rejection sensitivity can play a major role when it comes to peoples intimate relationship. The study discovered that people with rejection sensitivity experience:

  • insecurity in their intimate relationships
  • satisfaction problems

For example, do you know a person who may be quite emotionally dependent on their partner? or a person who fears that their partner may leave them? These are all examples of a rejection sensitive person as they have a fear of their partner leaving them.

Now, do you know of a person who seems unhappy in their relationship? Perhaps it’s not their partner’s fault, but rather how the rejection-sensitive individual perceives their relationship to be. This example demonstrates that rejection-sensitive individuals may experience general dissatisfaction and unhappiness in their intimate relationships.

Rejection Sensitivity and Relationships—It Affects Men and Women Differently!

Men with rejection sensitivity generally tend to be very controlling of their intimate relationships. Men with rejection sensitivity may get more or easily jealous of situations that may compromise their relationship with their partner. It’s been suggested that mean who demonstrate reactive, controlling, and jealous behaviors are at risk of potentially emotionally abusing their partners.

In contrast, women with rejection sensitivity may behave quite differently from men, when in an intimate relationship. In general, women tend to remain a lot more hostile and negative when in a relationship. For example, a woman who feels as though she is not receiving sufficient attention may tend to verbally abuse her partner, or deny them sexual satisfaction.

RSD & ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder aka ADHD is defined as the mental and brain disorder that affects a persons brain activity. ADHD is most commonly associated with:

  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity

Generally, adult ADHD may present itself a lot differently, than a child with ADHD. For example, children with ADHD may experience increased hyperactivity and an inability to focus. Whereas, an adult may experience more rejection sensitivity and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

ADHD is a form of brain development disorder. This is because people with ADHD generally tend to have a less developed caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, pallidum, thalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus.  Now if we look at each of these parts of the brain, we would be able to see, how they contribute to our emotions, thoughts, and day-to-day lives.

For example, the amygdala is the part of the brain that is responsible for functions such as memory, emotions, and decision making. An adult with ADHD would then have a much smaller amygdala, thus resulting in their inability to focus, and their rejection sensitivity.

Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria Same As Social Phobia?

Social Phobia is also more commonly known as social anxiety disorder. Social Phobia refers to the idea that people may have a fear of either being placed in a social situation or a fear of being the center of attention.

This form of mental illness generally denotes to the idea that a person may experience overwhelming feelings, anxiety, increased heart rate, and muscle tension as a result of being placed in a social situation. As such, a person with social anxiety disorder may develop symptoms similar to rejection sensitivity. This includes depressive thoughts, low self-esteem, and sensitivity to criticism.

When we look at rejection sensitive people, then there’s no doubt that both mental illnesses look the same! However, the causes of social phobia are generally associated with genetics, past social and cultural experiences. Similarly, the causes of ADHD are often associated with underdevelopment of the brain. Rejection sensitivity is similar in the sense that it becomes one of the underlying symptoms of both social phobia and ADHD

Is Hysteroid Dysphoria a Type of Rejection Sensitivity?

According to the American Journal of Psychiatry, a hysteriod dysphoria is a form of chronic mental illness that causes a person to experience episodes of depression as a result of a specific type of stress. As opposed to it being a specific type of rejection sensitivity, hysteroid dysphoria is a subtype of atypical depression that includes rejection sensitivity as a symptom.

RSD Symptoms

Understanding the symptoms of rejection-sensitive dysphoria can be quite complex. This is because RSD is actually a type of symptom for patients with ADHD. However, in general, a person with ADHD and rejection sensitivity may experience the following symptoms:

  • setting high standards for oneself
  • strong emotional reaction
  • Shyness
  • depression or depression thoughts
  • fear of failure
  • rage towards the situation or person that causes them discomfort
  • loss of self-esteem
  • seeking for self-approval from family, friends, and/or partners
  • A feeling of hopelessness
  • The person may criticize themselves a lot

How To Treat RSD or Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria

Because rejection-sensitive dysphoria is associated with ADHD, your mental health professional may consider treating the ADHD first. Originally, the conventional method of treatment for rejection sensitivity was psychotherapy. However, as emotions hit at random, this form of treatment proved to be mildly effective.  Today, your mental health professional may recommend medications such as a combination of alpha agonists guanfacine and clonidine—or, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

 4 Facts About Rejection Sensitivity Dysphoria

  1. Rejection sensitivity is a difficult concept to understand. Some forms of rejection sensitivity suggest that people may feel their emotions (depression, fear, etc) prior to the stressful situation occurring. As a result, they may find or perceive the situation in a negative manner.
  2. ADHD is often misdiagnosed as either bipolar disorder or Asperger’s syndrome.
  3. Over the last few years, there’s been a lot of debate suggesting that people with ADHD are more at risk of developing mental illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, this is still a topic that’s currently being studied.
  4. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has become one of the common treatment for people suffering from ADHD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a type of therapy that focuses on thoughts, behaviors, and emotions.

Conclusive Paragraph

Rejection sensitive dysphoria is a symptom that is most commonly associated with ADHD in adults and children. This form of mental illness often presents as intensive emotional feelings, fears, and outbursts of depression as a result of potential underdevelopment. While there is no cure, rejection sensitivity and ADHD can be controlled through treatment with medication.

Sources

https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ajp.139.10.1286

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6715288

When fear of rejection is more than it appears

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1480561

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170216105919.htm

https://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-social-anxiety-disorder#2

https://www.excelatlife.com/articles/ocd_social_phobia.htm

https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml#part_145447

https://www.excelatlife.com/articles/fear_of_rejection.htm

http://www.chadd.org/Understanding-ADHD/For-Adults/Treatment/Cognitive-Behavioral-Therapy.aspx

https://www.excelatlife.com/articles/ocd_social_phobia.htm

Gabapentin for Anxiety: Case Study You’ll Never Forget

Are you suffering from anxiety? or a panic disorder? Well, interestingly enough, there’s an anti-seizure medication can help you out! Gabapentin for anxiety is a drug that’s been used to treat all sorts of nerve pain and seizures. But, recently, this drug has become widely used when it comes to treating psychiatric disorders such as anxiety. Are you curious to learn more about how Gabapentin can help you? Read on to learn more about this amazing drug.

What is Gabapentin?

Gabapentin for anxiety may more commonly be known as Neurontin. Gabapentin is a type of prescription drug that is mainly used to treat conditions involving seizures and nerve damage, so it is known as an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug. More recently, however, Neurontin has become increasingly popular when it comes to treating mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorder

Gabapentin can come in the form of an oral medication, this may be more commonly sold under the name Gabapentin Enacarbil. The major difference between Gabapentin and Gabapentin Encarbil is that the Gabapentin Encarbil drug is a prodrug of Gabapentin. This means that the medication is broken down and converted to Gabapentin when ingested, making it a lot more bioavailable to the body.

Gabapentin: How Does It Work?

Gabapentin-Neurontin is a class of drug that has analgesic effects, this simply means that this drug reduces pain. The mechanism to how Gabapentin works and metabolizes in our body can be quite complicated. But, if you’re really interested in learning more about the pharmacology of this drug, we’ll keep things simple.

First, it’s important to know that Gabapentin is an analog of the neurotransmitter known as gamma-aminobutyric acid  (GABA). The term analog simply means that the Gabapentin molecules will structurally look very similar to the GABA neurotransmitter. Now, in order for our bodies to release a specific neurotransmitter, there has to be an influx of calcium through the cell membranes. The influx of calcium occurs as a result of channels called “voltage-gated calcium channels”.

Now, you might be wondering, why are these calcium channels important? what do they do? and how do they affect Gabapentin?

Voltage-gated calcium channels play an important role in mainting intracellular function. Two of their major functions often involve the contraction of the muscles and normal brain functioning.  if we want to get more into the physiology, then another important point to consider is the fact that Gabapentin seems to have an effect on these channels, inhibiting the threshold for a sub-unit of voltage-gated calcium channels. This subunit is believed to play a role in the attenuation of pain and the neurons associated with it.

Gabapentin Vs Pregabalin

Gabapentin and Pregabalin are drugs that are often mistaken as synonymous with each other. However, pregabalin is a lot different from Gabapentin. Here we have listed the common similarities between the two drugs:

  • They both are considered antiepileptic drugs
  • They both are used to treat nerve pain
  • Both Gabapentin and Pregabalin are used to treat nerve pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia
  • The major difference between both drugs is that Pregabalin is often given in lower doses, thus decreasing the risk of  adverse reactions
  • Pregabalin also seems to have a more potent effect when it comes to treating disorders such as post-herpetic neuralgia and other pain-related disorders

What is Gabapentin used for?

Over the last 10 years, scientist and mental health practitioners have been using Neurontin to treat different forms of mental illness. These include:

  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Preoperative anxiety
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Panic attacks
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Alzheimer’s disease

Gabapentin for Anxiety

Whether or not Neurontin can be used to treat anxiety disorders, has become a subject of much debate. To date, numerous studies show that Neurotonin has the potential to treat anxiety disorders. For example, Neurotonin can be beneficial to women’s health such that it can be used to treat anxiety in breast cancer survivors.

More commonly, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, done in 1999 discovered that Neurotonin demonstrated that it had the potential to treat patients who had social phobia. Conversely, other similar placebo-based study discovered that Neurotonin was able to effectively treat anxiety disorders such as panic attacks,  agoraphobia, perisurgical anxiety, and decrease the risk of hot flashes.

Gabapentin Dosage

The dose of gabapentin for anxiety may be variable depending on a multitude of factors, such as patient’s mental health, medical history, and age. Thus, it is highly recommended that individuals seeking Gabapentin consult their mental health practitioner. Nevertheless, a 2017 case report concluded that the dosage for these anti-anxiety drugs can be estimated at:

  • <600 mg/day for severe anxiety
  • >≥ 900 mg/day for mild anxiety

Gabapentin Side Effects

According to the FDA one of the major side-effects of Neurotonin includes an increased risk in suicidal thoughts, This side effect is particularly important in patients who have been diagnosed with psychiatric dysfunctions such as generalized anxiety disorder. Studies demonstrated that a medication classed as an antiepileptic drug result in a risk of suicidal thoughts one week after the medication has been administered.

Other common side effects associated with Neurontin include:

  • Dizziness
  • Lack of coordination
  • Increased risk of viral infections
  • Double vision
  • Fever
  • Patients may have a hard time speaking
  • Abnormal eye movements
  • Tremors
  • Changes in mood
  • Swelling of the feet, hands, or ankles
  • Depression

If you experience severe symptom,s such as an inability to swallow, shallow breathing, or if you notice symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes, rashes, swelling around the tongue, face, and throat, then contact your physician or the emergency hospital as soon as possible, as these symptoms are indicative of a serious allergic reaction.

Gabapentin Withdrawal

Gabapentin is a type of anti-anxiety drugs, that when used as a form of long-term treatment, can result in severe withdrawal symptoms. This medication is often quite abused by patients, and when taken away, the medication causes physiological dependence.

Physiological dependence simply means that the overuse of the medication results in the neurons adapting to the chemical. Therefore, the neuron now relies on the drug in order to maintain normal functioning. When the medication is taken away from the patient, then the neurons and chemicals of the brain become dysregulated—this is the primary cause of Neurontin gabapentin withdrawal symptoms.

Gabapentin Withdrawal Symptoms

In general, people may experience the effects of gabapentin withdrawal symptoms 12 to 48 hours post medication withdrawal. During the first 24 hours, a person will experience withdrawal symptoms such as:

  • severe anxiety
  • headaches
  • perspiration
  • hand and body tremors

By the third day, a person experiencing gabapentin withdrawal will start to feel restless and disoriented. Hallucinations, confusion, increased heart rate, agitation, fever, and trembling are all symptoms associated with withdrawal. Unfortunately, a person may experience withdrawal symptoms for up to 10 or more days.

Should you continue to experience symptoms of withdrawals for more than 30 days, then it’s important to contact your psychiatrist and/or physician in order to discuss your condition.

5 Facts You Need To Know About Gabapentin for Anxiety!

  1. Gabapentin is the analog of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA. The GABA neurotransmitter is actually unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, but the Gabapentin medication is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Scientists believe that this can be clinically beneficial to patients suffering from partial epilepsy.
  2. Some studies show that people who take Gabapentin may develop a fatal condition known as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, which is a disease that results in the destruction of the red blood cells.
  3. The drug known as benzodiazepines has been commonly used to treat anxiety disorders. Some studies suggest that Gabapentin can be used to treat patients who suffer from the withdrawal of the benzodiazepines drug.
  4. Gabapentin is also used to treat a condition called Restless Legs Syndrome.
  5. Gabapentin can also be used as an “off-label” prescription. This means that it can commonly be used to treat conditions like alcohol withdrawal, Neuropathic nerve pain, Fibromyalgia, and Trigeminal neuralgia

Gabapentin—Like Any Drug, You’ll Need To Be Careful

Drugs have their pros and cons. Generally, they will effectively treat the ailments they are designed to heal. However, like any medication, drugs like Gabapentin, do have the potential to cause mild to severe side-effects. If you’re interested in trying this medication out to treat your anxiety, then talk to a mental health profession.

Sources

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573104/

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https://mentalhealthdaily.com/2015/06/22/gabapentin-for-anxiety-disorders-an-off-label-treatment/